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english syntax:an introduction (radford, 2004).new.pdf


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english syntax:an introduction (radford, 2004).new.pdf
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1ENGLISHSYNTAX:AndrewRadford Radford,A. (2004) EnglishSyntax:AnIntroduction,CambridgeUniversity Press,Cambridge, ISBN0521542758 (paperback)1.Grammar1.1Overview Inbroadterms, thisbookis concernedwithaspectsofgrammar. Grammaristraditionally subdividedintotwodifferentbutinter-relatedareasof study– morphologyand syntax.Morphologyis the studyofhowwords areformedoutofsmallerunits(called morphemes),and soaddresses questions suchas‘ponentmorphemesofawordlike antidisestablishmentarianism,andwhatisthe natureofthemorphologicaloperations binedtogethertoform theoverallword?’ Syntaxisthestudyofthewayinwhichphrases andsentencesarestructuredoutofwords,and so addresses questions like‘Whatis the structureofasentencelike What’sthepresidentdoing?andwhatis thenatureofthegrammaticaloperations ponentwords binedtogethertoform the overall sentence structure?’In this chapter, wetakealookattheapproachtosyntaxadoptedby Chomsky.1.2UniversalGrammar Withintraditionalgrammar, thesyntaxofalanguageis describedinterms ofa taxonomy(i.e. classificatorylist)oftherangeofdifferenttypesof syntactic structuresfoundinthelanguage.Thecentral assumptionunderpinningsyntacticanalysis intraditionalgrammaris thatphrases and sentences arebuilt upofaseries of constituents(i.e. syntacticunits), eachofwhichbelongs toa specific grammaticalcategoryand serves a specific grammaticalfunction.Giventhis assumption, thetaskofthelinguist analysingthesyntacticstructureofanygiventypeofsentenceis toidentifyeachoftheconstituents inthe sentence,and(foreachconstituent)to saywhatcategoryitbelongs toandwhatfunctionit serves.For example,inrelationtothesyntaxofa simplesentencelike: (1)Students protestedvehemently itwouldtraditionallybe saidthateachofthe threewords inthesentencebelongstoa specificgrammatical category (studentsbeingaplural noun,protestedapasttense verb,and vehementlyan adverb)andthat each serves a specificgrammaticalfunction (protestedbeinga predicate, studentsbeingits sole argumentandfunctioningas the subjectof protested, and yesterdaybeingan adjunct– i.e.an expressionwhichprovides additionalinformationaboutthetime,placeormannerofanevent).The overall sentence Students protestedyesterdayhas thecategorial status ofa clausewhichis finite innature (byvirtueofdenotinganeventtakingplaceata specifictime),andhasthe semanticfunctionof expressinga propositionwhichis declarativeinforce(inthatitisusedtomakeastatementratherthan e.g.askaquestion). Incontrasttothe taxonomicapproachadoptedintraditionalgrammar, Chomskytakes a cognitiveapproachtothe studyofgrammar.For Chomsky, thegoalofthelinguististodeterminewhatitisthat native speakers knowabouttheirnativelanguagewhichenables themto speakandunderstandthe languagefluently:hence,the studyoflanguageis partofthewider studyof cognition(i.e. whathuman beingsknow). Inafairlyobvious sense,anynative speakerofalanguagecanbe saidto knowthegrammar ofhisorhernativelanguage.Forexample, anynativespeakerofEnglishcan 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.
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